3r smart

Replacement - Reduction - Refinement

Methods to replace and supplement animal experiments

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About 3R SMART

Training platform for methodological approaches to reduce animal experiments

Welcome to 3R SMART!
We are an information and training platform that is aimed at both interested lay people and also scientists and technical personnel. The 3Rs stand for the Refinement, Reduction and Replacement of animal experiments.

The project is financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and coordinated and built up by the Foundation Veterinary University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover and the Philipps University of Marburg.


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Articles about 3R


The 3R-Concept

This article details what the 3Rs concept means, where it comes from and what the legal implementation of the concept looks like in Germany.

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Careful breeding planning in mice

This presentation by Prof. Kurt Reifenberg is a recommendation describing appropriate tools for careful breeding planning in mice and applying these tools to specific breedings.


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The MoNLightBoNT assay is designed to be used in the long run as an alternative to the mouse lethality test for the activity testing of various products containing Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), such as Botox®.

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WI3R Symposium 2024

1st International Conference of the Würzburg Initiative 3R (WI3R)

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1st Annual Meeting of 3R Competence Network NRW

Deadline for registration and abstract: 10.11.2023

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Austrian 3Rdays 2023

"A3RC InN Motion" Abstract Submission Deadline: 14.10.2023

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